! Hard functions as an adjective or an adverb, means difficult (a hard time) or solid (hard rock).

e.g. The roadmen work hard.

 

! Hardly functions as an adverb and means almost not or very little. It is often used with any (thing/one/where etc.) and ever. It is not used with negative words.

e.g. The roadmen hardly work.

 

Don’t say: I hardly never eat chocolate.

Say: I hardly ever eat chocolate.

 

VOCABULARY BUILDING

hardly likely – málo pravděpodobný

(can) hardly stand upright – sotva se držet na nohách

(can) hardly talk straight – sotva vládnout jazykem

 

hard as a brick – tvrdý jako kámen

hard blow – těžká rána

hard boiled eggs – vejce (vařená) natvrdo

hard cash – hotovost, pokladní hotovost

hard feelings – nepřátelský vztah

hard of hearing – nahluchlý

 

 

QUIZ: Use hard or hardly in these sentences.

 

  1. My mum is so tired that she can _________ stand up.

  2. This slice of bread is very _______ .

  3. She tried very _______ to understand.

  4. His wife is so ill she eats _______ anything.

  5. This exercise wasn’t very _________ to do.

  6. My parents _________ ever go to the cinema.

 

KEY: 1. hardly, 2. hard, 3. hard, 4. hardly, 5. hard, 6. hardly

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